Here is an illustrated explanation of an orchard pattern I refer to as PAW. I have developed it over the years of planting and experimenting and have setted into it as my preferred temperate climate arrangement, especially when working with more pest and disease prone species. When planting new areas of our farm I generally use variations of this theme, with the rows oriented on a keyline pattern or from north to south. Hopefully folks will find this useful. Think of it as a framework not a strict protocol. It should be modified based on desires, context, and climate.
When planting trees we are designing an ecosystem, not a factory. The alternative relies on the heavy use of industrial input to maintain production. With thoughtful design and human participation in a complex ecology we can grow fertility in place, build soil, and create resilient and productive food systems
Edit: Version 2 is in the works. I also have a vine layer that uses nitrogen fixer's as a trellis, which I now realize I did not show in the illustration. examples: schizandra, hardy kiwi, akebia.